Messianic Gentile: A Gentile disciple of Yeshua who practices Messianic Judaism and has come alongside the Jewish people by joining a Messianic Jewish congregation. He or she observes Jewish specific practices as a matter of personal (not universal) calling, and in a manner that respects both Jewish tradition and the relationship of interdependence and mutual blessing between Jews and Gentiles in Messiah.
Hebrew Roots: A term for Gentile Christians who, recognizing that early Christianity departed from many aspects of Torah observance, attempt to return to the practice of Torah as a universal norm and often without any connection to Jewish tradition. While this term covers a wide variety of practices and theologies, such as Two-House and One-Law (hard and soft varieties), most Hebrew Roots individuals harbor suspicions about Rabbinic authority, have a deep disdain for the Church and are generally concerned with the pagan origins of numerous Christian and Jewish customs.
One-Law: In its hard form, a theology that believes faith in Messiah erases all distinction between Jews and Gentiles. According to One-Law theology, Jews and Gentile believers in Yeshua are both obligated to the full yoke of the Torah and all of its commandments in an identical manner. Many One-Law adherents attempt to observe Torah without reference to traditional Jewish interpretation and practice in an attempt to be more “biblical” in Torah observance. The term “One-Law” is based on passages in the Torah that speak of “one law for the native and for the stranger” (e.g. Exodus 12:49). In its soft form, One Law theology maintains that all Gentile believers should keep both the ethical norms of Scripture and Jewish specific practices in order to be blessed, to grow to maturity and to walk as Yeshua walked.
Two-House: A theology which teaches that Gentiles who come to Messiah are either physically or spiritually connected to the lost ten tribes of Israel, thus fulfilling the biblical prophecies about their return. Jewish people are labeled “Judah” and Gentile Christians as “Ephraim.” Proponents find support for their position in prophecies that speak of the return of the lost tribes such as Ezekiel 37 and in fanciful exegesis which allegorically depicts Ephraim and Judah through the entire Bible. Two-house theology makes no distinction between Gentile and Jewish response to the Torah and, in most cases, has no connection with Messianic Judaism.