Messianic Gentile: A Gentile disciple of Yeshua who practices Messianic Judaism and has come alongside the Jewish people through Messianic Judaism. He observes the Torah, including the Sabbath and festivals, in a manner that respects both Jewish tradition and the apostolic distinction between Jews and Gentiles in Messiah. Messianic Gentiles are comfortable with their role as non-Jews within Messianic Judaism, partnering with Israel to bring the Messianic Era closer while eagerly awaiting the return of Yeshua.
Hebrew Roots: A term for Gentile Christians who, recognizing that early Christianity departed from many aspects of Torah observance, attempt to return to the practice of Torah but without any connection to Messianic Judaism or Jewish tradition in general. While this term covers a wide variety of practices and theologies, such as Two-House and One-Law, most Hebrew Roots Christians share a rejection of Jewish tradition and harbor suspicions about Rabbinic authority. Most Hebrew Roots individuals also have a deep disdain for the Church and are generally concerned with the pagan origins of numerous Christian and Jewish customs.
One-Law: A theology that believes faith in Messiah erases all distinction between Jews and Gentiles. According to One-Law theology, Jews and Gentile believers in Yeshua are both obligated to the full yoke of the Torah and all of its commandments in an identical manner. Many One-Law adherents attempt to observe Torah without reference to traditional Jewish interpretation and practice in an attempt to be more “biblical” in Torah observance. The term “One-Law” is based on passages in the Torah that speak of “one law for the native and for the stranger” (e.g. Exodus 12:49).
Two-House: A theology which teaches that Gentiles who come to Messiah are either physically or spiritually connected to the lost ten tribes of Israel, thus fulfilling the biblical prophecies about their return. Jewish people are labeled “Judah” and Gentile Christians as “Ephraim.” Proponents find support for their position in prophecies that speak of the return of the lost tribes such as Ezekiel 37 and in fanciful exegesis which allegorically depicts Ephraim and Judah through the entire Bible. Two-house theology makes no distinction between Gentile and Jewish response to the Torah and, in most cases, has no connection with Messianic Judaism.